Converging evidence demonstrates the important role of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin (OT) in human behaviour and cognition. Intranasal OT administration has been shown to improve several aspects of social communication, such as the theory of mind performance and gaze to the eye region, and reduce anxiety and related negative cognitive appraisals. While this early research has demonstrated the potential for intranasal OT to treat psychiatric illnesses characterized by social impairments, the neurobiological mechanisms are not well known. Researchers have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural correlates of OT response; however, results have been variable and moderating factors are poorly understood. The aim of this meta-analysis is to synthesize data examining the impact of intranasal OT administration on neural activity.